Characteristics Men (n=291) Women (n=627) P-value a
Demographic characteristics      
Age, years, mean (SD) 59.1 (10.0) 57.0 (9.8) <0.001
Education, junior high school or above, n (%) 245 (84.2) 456 (72.7) <0.001
Family history of diabetes, n (%) 25 (8.6) 63 (10.1) 0.485
Prior history of hypertension, n (%) 106 (36.4) 187 (29.8) 0.046
Prior history of dyslipidemia, n (%) 20 (6.9) 41 (6.5) 0.85
Current smoking, n (%) 134 (46.1) 6 (1.0) <0.001
Current alcohol consumption, n (%) 113 (38.8) 21 (3.4) <0.001
Body measurement, mean (SD)      
BMI 25.1 (3.1) 25.0 (3.3) 0.365
WHR 0.88 (0.06) 0.84 (0.06) <0.001
SBP, mmHg 134.1 (16.4) 129.5 (17.1) <0.001
DBP, mmHg 85.2 (9.0) 81.6 (9.6) <0.001
Biochemistry indicators, mean (SD)      
Fasting glucose level, mmol/L 5.4 (1.0) 5.3 (1.2) 0.101
HbA1c, % 5.9 (0.5) 6.0 (0.8) 0.023
HDLC, mmol/L 1.1 (0.3) 1.4 (0.3) <0.001
LDLC, mmol/L 2.7 (0.7) 2.9 (0.8) 0.001
TC, mmol/L 4.3 (0.8) 4.6 (0.8) <0.001
TG, mmol/L 1.6 (1.2) 1.4 (0.8) 0.244
Dietary intake, mean (SD)      
Energy, kcal/d 2019.7 (604.7) 1758.6 (470.5) <0.001
Fat, g/d 45.3 (22.7) 42.0 (18.2) 0.139
Average GI 62.1 (7.8) 60.4 (7.3) <0.001
Metabolic syndrome, n (%) 110 (37.8) 249 (39.8) 0.568
Missing values (3 for HDLC, 14 for dietary factors and 1 for presence of metabolic syndrome) were excluded.
a P for χ2 test (categorical variables) or non-parameter Wilcoxon test (continuous variables).  
Table 1: Comparisons of demographic and clinical characteristics of participants by gender.