Outcome

Group 1—Training + MIPE^
(n = 18)

Group 2—Training only (n=17)

10-cm analogue pain scale

Baseline

6.2 ± 2.1

7.3 ± 1.1

4 weeks

3.9 ± 1.8

5.1 ± 2.3

                  p-value†

≤ .05

Monofilament
sensation¶

Baseline

7.2 ± 1.8

8.3 ± 0.9

4 weeks

1.4 ± 2.1

7.2 ± 1.3

                p-value†

0.025

0.06

Berg balance score§

Baseline

31 ± 9.27

28.58 ± 10.16

4 weeks

47.61 ± 10.16

32.52 ± 9.54

                            p-value†

≤ .05

*Values are mean ± standard deviation
^MIPE = monochromatic infrared photo energy
†Dependent sample t- test revealed statistically significant differences within the treatment groups except the within the second group difference for the sensation measurement
¶Possible score ranging from 0 to 10, indicative of the number of separate pedal anatomic sites where 5.07-monofilament touch-pressure was not appreciated by the participant (lower score indicative of more sensation)
§A score of 21-40 indicates balance impairment and a heightened medium risk of falling
Table 2: Outcomes at baseline and 4 weeks, by intervention group (N = 35 participants)*.