Figure 4: RANKL/OPG/RANK-NFκB pathway following stimulation of diabetic environment and calcitriol (10-10 mol/l). (A) In a diabetic environment RANKL/OPG ratio is high, RANKL binds to its receptors (RANK) on VSMCs to activate NFκB (p50/p65). (B) The addition of calcitriol (10-10 mol/l) to the stimulated cells caused downregulation of the RANKL/ OPG ratio and RANK expression followed by a decrease of NFκB (p50/p65).