Disease Female/male ratio Tissue source References
Systemic sclerosis ≥ 8:1 Peripheral blood cells [33,34]
Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy 3:1 Sorted CD4+ or CD8+ peripheral blood cells [35,36]
Systemic lupus erythematosus 5:1 Peripheral blood nucleated cells [37]
Sjögren syndrome 9:1 Peripheral blood whole nucleated cells [37]
Primary biliary cirrhosis 14:1 Peripheral blood nucleated cells [38]
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 20:1 Thyroid tissue [39]
Graves’ disease 8:1 Thyroid tissue [40]
Lichen planus 2:1 Peripheral blood nucleated cells [41]
Polymorphic eruptions of pregnancy pregnancy   [42]
Interestingly, maternal microchimerism was found in the peripheral blood of patients with T1DM and pancreatic islet beta cell microchimerism [43]. It was demonstrated that this bioevent also leads to the production of IL-2,a proinflammatory cytokine,in IL-2 knockout mice [44]
Table 4: Autoimmune diseases associated with fetal and/or maternal microchimerism (according to Klonisch and Drouin [32]; with own modification).