Cytokines Sources Functions
IL-12 Dendritic cells [147-149] Promotes T cell proliferation and differentiation [134,150]
  Neutrophils [151-153] Promotes NK cell responses [129,154]
  Inflammatory monocytes [153,155] Promotes IFN-γ production [122,149]
IFN-γ NK cells [137,145,154] Promotes iNOS expression [158]
  CD4+ T cells [159] Promotes p47 GTP-ase-mediated killing of T. gondii [160,161]
  CD8+ T cells [159] Promotes tryptophan degradation [135,162-164]
TNF-α Neutrophils [151,165] Promotes macrophage activation [166]
  Dendritic cells [165] Promotes control of parasite in non-hematopoietic cells [167]
  Macrophages [168]  
  Microglia [169] Promotes iNOS expression [138,170-172]
  T cells [173]  
IL-6 Monocytes [174] Necessary for optimal neutrophil responses [175]
  Astroglia [176] Necessary for optimal IFN-γ responses [175]
  Stromal cells [177]  
  Retinal pigment epithelial cells [178]  
LT-α Lymphocytes [179] Necessary for normal secondary lymphoid architecture [180]
    Necessary for optimal antibody and IFN-γ responses early during infection [138]
    Necessary for optimal expression of iNOS [170]
IL-10 NK cells [181] Inhibits CD4+ T cell-mediated pathology [182]
  Macrophages [183]  
  CD4+ T cells [184]  
  CD8+ T cells [183]  
IL-27 Antigen-presenting cells [185] Inhibits IL-17 production [186]
    Inhibits IL-2 production [187]
    Promotes IL-10 production [188]
    Promotes PD-L1 expression [189]
CD40L
(surface protein)
Expressed on T cells [190] Promotes TH1 responses in humans [191]
    Promotes iNOS expression [192]
    Promotes xenophagic killing of T. gondii [193]
Numbers in parentheses denote reference nos
Table 8: Cytokines necessary for survival during T. gondii infection (according to Dupont et al. [146]; with own modification).