Parameters Obese children Controls p
Leptin (ng/ml)a 19.9 ± 7.4 7.9 ± 5.1 <0.001
IL-1β (pg/ml) 33 ± 8.9 3.6 ± 1 <0.001
IL-2 (U/l) 0.4 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 <0.01
IL-6 (pg/ml) 45.2 ± 11.8 13.1 ± 3.9 <0.001
TNF-α (pg/ml) 9.2 ± 2.3 3.9 ± 1 <0.001
E-selectine (ng/ml) 78 ± 38 59 ± 29 <0.01
hsCRP (mg/l) 4.1 ± 4.8 0.9 ± 1.5 <0.001
Results are mean ± SD; CRP: C-Reactive Protein; hs: high-sensitivity; aLeptin has the structure similar to that of IL-2 and may activate the innate immune system and shift the cognate immune system toward a predominance of a proinflammatory TH1 T cell population while reducing the regulatory TH2 phenotype [255]. Leptin treatment was found to increase energy expenditure (oxygen consumption),as well as increased thermogenic marker uncoupling protein-1 and type II deiodinase mRNA levels 1.7- and 3-fold,respectively,in mice [256].
Table 11: Serum proinflammatory cytokines and leptin concentrations in obese children at prepubertal age compared with healthy children of the same age (according to Aygun et al. [253] and Kapiotis et al. [254]; with own modification).