Protein (localization) Phosphorylation status in infected cells Functional category
Caldesmon Unphosphorylated Mitosis
Calreticulin Unphosphorylated Protein folding
Nucleobindin Unphosphorylated Protein fate
Protein disulphide isomerase Unphosphorylated Structural
Thyroid hormone binding protein Unphosphorylated Signal transduction/cellular communication
Chaperonin HSP60 (mitochondria) Phosphorylated Energy metabolism
Lamin A protein (mitochondria) Phosphorylated Unknown
Vimentin (mitochondria) Phosphorylated Structural
T. gondii kinase activity is involved in phosphorylation of host IκBα and this unusual mechanism can be utilized in manipulating the NF-κB pathway [415]. Moreover, a novel parasite kinase activity at the T. gondii parasitophorus vacuole membrane is also capable of phosphorylating host IκB [416]. There is biochemical evidence for the presence of an oxidative phosphorylation and functional respiratory chain in the mitochondrion of tachyzoites [417]. Recently, cAMP dependent protein kinase important for the tachyzoite growth was identified in the parasite [95], and protein phosphorylation is a key event in the process of T. gondii-host cell interaction [418]. Changes in the proteomes of human foreskin fibroblasts following infection with T. gondii included, e.g. protein kinase C (delta binding protein) (modulated),protein kinase NYD-Sp9 (↑, up-regulated in expression), protein serine/threonine kinase (↓,down-regulated),glutathione synthetase (↑), glutathione-S-transferase chain A (↓), as well as several enzymes involved in glycolysis (Table 17) [368].
Table 22: Proteins undergoing a change in phosphorylation state following T. gondii infection (Nelson et al. [368]; with own modification).