Diseases Protein that forms toxic oligomers Cell lost
T2DM islet amyloid polypeptide b-cells
Alzheimer’s diseasea b-amyloid protein cortical neurons
Parkinson’s diseasea synuclein dopaminergic neurons
Prion encephalopathy/
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
prion cortical neurons
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutant superoxide dysmutase motor neurons
Polyglutamine/Huntington’s disease Huntington’s polyglutamine pyramidal neurons
The islet amyloid is derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP,amylin),a protein co-expressed and co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic β-cells. aIt must be noted that anti-IgG T. gondii antibodies were found to be significantly increased in both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases as compared with controls (p<0.001)
Table 23: The common molecular basis of islet amyloidogenic proteins-related T2DM and neurodegenerative diseases (according to Haataja et al. [439]; with own modification).