GT segment Motility disorders References
Esophagus Increased amplitude and number of peristaltic contractions [471-474]
  Increased number of spontaneous and non-propagated contractions [475]
  Decreased amplitude of lower esophageal sphincter pressure [471]
  Multi-peaked contractions [476, 477]
Stomach Decreased antral IMMC [478]
  Decreased postprandial antral activity and the number of antral contractions [479]
  Pyloric dysmotility [480]
Small intestine Decreased or increased frequency and amplitude of the antropyloroduodenal contractions [481]
  Increased duration of MMC cycle [482]
  Early recurrence of the MMC and clusters of contractile activity [483]
IMMC: Inter-digestive Migrating Motor Complex; MMC: Migrating Motor Complex
Table 26: Disorders of GT motility in patients with DM (according to Zhao et al. [466]; with own modification).