Morphological changes Biomechanical changes
Increased intestinal weight, length, weight per unit length Decreased opening angle and residual strain in duodenum
Increased surface area of mucosa Increased opening angle and residual strain in jejunum and ileum
Increased number of goblet cells per villus Increased circumferential stiffness of the intestinal wall
Increased smooth muscle mass Increased longitudinal stiffness of the intestinal wall
Increased different layer thickness Decreased stress relaxation of small intestine
Increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen  
Decreased volume of interstitial cells of Cajal  
Table 27: Morphological and biomechanical changes of small intestine in diabetic patients (according to Zhao et al. [466]; with own modification)