GT segment Type of abnormality Species References
Esophagus, stomach, intestine Loss of ICCs Human, mouse, rat [488]
Esophagus, stomach, intestine Diabetic gastroenteropathy Human, mouse, rat [489]
Stomach Gastroparesis, oxidative stress Mouse [490]
Stomach Gastroparesis, regional injury of ICCs Rat [491]
Stomach Gastroparesis Human [492]
Stomach Gastroparesis Human [493]
Stomach, intestine Oxidative stress Human, mouse, rat [494]
Duodenum Loss of enteric neurons Rat [495]
Duodenum, jejunum,
ileum, colon
Region-specific nitrergic neuronal loss, gastrointestinal motility disorders Rat [496]
Duodenum, cecum Loss of enteric neurons Rat [497]
Jejunum Decreased NO responsiveness and nNOS protein expression Rat [498]
Ileum Loss of enteric neurons Rat [499]
Small intestine Loss of enteric neurons, gastrointestinal motility disorders Human, mouse, rat [500]
Colon Loss of enteric neurons, gastrointestinal motility disorders, increased oxidative stress Human [501]
Colon Reduction in GFAP and neurotrophins Rat [502]
GT: Gastrointestinal Tract; ICCs, Interstitial Cells of Cajal; nNOS, Neuronal NO Synthase; GFAP, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Table 28: Alterations of the enteric nervous system found in experimental and clinical diabetes mellitus (according to Bagyanszki and Bodi,[487]; with own modification).