Diabetic nephropathy Diabetic retinopathy
  absent present P absent present P
n 36 27 - 32 31 -
Male (%) 50.0 81.5 0.010 59.4 67.7 0.490
Age (years) 62.8 ± 12.0 67.7 ± 11.2 0.103 64.0 ± 10.8 65.8 ± 12.9 0.541
Diabetes duration (years) 12.5 ± 6.6 16.6 ± 9.4 0.051 11.1 ± 6.5 17.5 ± 8.4 0.001
Insulin therapy (%) 30.6 37.0 0.589 18.8 48.4 0.013
HbA1c (%) 7.1 ± 1.0 7.1 ± 1.0 0.851 7.0 ± 0.9 7.3 ± 1.0 0.219
GA (%) 20.7 ± 4.3 21.6 ± 4.3 0.409 19.7 ± 3.6 22.6 ± 4.6 0.008
GA/HbA1c ratio 2.9 ± 0.3 3.0 ± 0.4 0.173 2.8 ± 0.3 3.1 ± 0.4 0.003
Values are mean ± SD or percent
Table 1: Clinical and biochemical characteristics of the patients with or without diabetic nephropathy and those with or without diabetic retinopathy.