Risk factor DRΔ DMEΔ
OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Gender (female) 0.53 (0.33-0.87) 0.011    
Insulin use 2.64 (1.50-4.64) 0.001    
At least one comorbidity        
Diabetic complication        
Age (years) 0.95 (0.92-0.97) <0.001 0.95 (0.93, 0.97) <0.001
SBP, mmHg     1.01 (1.00, 1.02) 0.092
Duration of diabetes (years) 1.10 (1.07-1.14) <0.001 1.04 (1.02, 1.07) <0.001
HbA1c (%) 1.34 (1.13-1.60) 0.001 1.41 (1.20, 1.67) <0.001
DR: Diabetic Retinopathy; DME: Diabetic Macular Edema; HbA1c: Haemoglobin A1c; SBP: Systolic Blood Pressure
ΔThe independent variables include age, sex, body mass index (BMI), diabetes duration, smoking history, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin use, other diabetic complication, fasting plasma glucose, and comorbidities
Table 2: Associations between risk factors for DR and DME in patients with type 2 diabetes from multiple logistic regression models.