All patients  (N=286791) <55 years N=37221 55-74 years N=153350 ≥75 years N=96320 2 years (N=63061) 3-5 years (N=101848) 6-10 years (N=80369) >10 years    (N=41513)
Sex, % of males 53.7 65.9 57.1 43.5 57.9 54.8 52.0 47.9
Age, mean years ± SD 68.2 ± 11.4 48.3 ± 4.9 65.4 ± 5.5 80.3 ± 3.9 64.1 ± 12.4 67.8 ± 11.3 69.8± 10.4 72.4± 9.3
Diabetes duration, mean years ± SD 6.5 ± 5.1 4.3 ± 3.2 6.4 ± 4.7 7.7 ± 5.9 1.7 ± 0.7 4.6 ± 0.8 7.9 ± 1.4 16.0 ± 5.7
HbA1c, mean, % ± SDa 7.1 ± 1.5 7.5 ± 1.9 7.2 ± 1.4 7.0 ± 1.3 6.8 ± 1.4 7.1 ± 1.4 7.3 ± 1.4 7.5 ± 1.5
HbA1c, mean, mmol/mol ± SDa 54.6 ± 16.0 58.8 ± 20.3 54.9 ± 15.7 52.9 ± 14.2 50.9 ± 15.6 54.3 ± 15.8 56.3 ± 15.8 58.1 ± 16.0
HbA1c≤ 7% (≤ 53 mmol/mol) (%)a 56.1 49.3 55.2 60.0 69.6 57.4 50.8 43.8
BMI, mean Kg/m2 ± SDb 29.6 ± 5.0 30.7 ± 5.7 30.0 ± 5.0 28.6 ± 4.6 30.8 ± 5.1 29.7 ± 5.0 29.5 ± 5.0 29.1 ± 4.1
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2) (%)b 45.4 53.4 48.0 38.1 48.9 46.3 43.9 40.9
Current smoker 15.6 36.8 16.7 5.8 20.7 16.5 13.6 10.3
Any macrovascular %  
Coronary %
Cerebrovascular %
17.4
11.9
6.7
6.4
4.2
1.6
16.3
10.5
5.0
26.2
15.2
10.8
13.1
7.9
4.6
17.3
10.6
6.2
20.5
12.7
7.2
25.0
15.3
9.1
Retinopathy % 5.8 3.4 6.0 6.4 1.9 4.6 6.7 13.0
Nephropathy %c 16.7 17.1 15.3 18.9 14.2 16.2 17.5 19.6
Renal Functiond
eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, %
eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2, %
eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2,  %

81.6
17.1
1.3

97.4
2.3
0.2

87.8
11.4
0.8

66.3
31.3
2.4

86.9
12.4
0.7

82.2
16.6
1.2

79.9
18.7
1.4

75.6
22.3
2.1
Glycaemic-lowering step of treatment  
Lifestyle only (N= 69924) (%)
HbA1c, mean %
HbA1c, mean, mmol/mol ± SD
HbA1c≤ 7% (≤ 53 mmol/mol) (%)
BMI, mean Kg/m2 ± SD
24.4
6.3 ± 1.0
45.7 ± 11.0
85.4
29.4 ± 4.8
29.8
6.6 ± 1.5
49.0 ± 16.5
75.7
30.5 ± 5.4
23.2
6.3 ± 0.9
45.5 ± 10.27
86.1
29.6 ± 4.7
24.1
6.2 ± 0.8
44.7 ± 8.9
88.1
28.6 ± 4.5
37.8
6.3 ± 1.0
45.6 ± 11.0
86.1
29.8 ± 4.9
25.5
6.3 ± 1.0
45.7 ± 11.0
85.2
29.4 ± 4.7
18.5
6.3 ± 1.0
45.8 ± 11.0
84.8
28.9 ± 4.7
12.7
6.3 ± 1.0
45.7 ± 11.0
84.4
28.3 ± 4.5
Oral monotherapy (N=101749) (%)
HbA1c, mean %
HbA1c, mean, mmol/mol ± SD
HbA1c≤ 7% (≤ 53 mmol/mol) (%)
BMI, mean Kg/m2 ± SD
35.5
6.9 ± 1.3
52.1 ± 13.9
63.7
29.6 ± 4.9
36.1
7.3 ± 1.7
56.4 ± 18.2
54.0
30.9 ± 5.5
35.7
6.9 ± 1.2
52.1 ± 13.5
63.3
29.9 ± 4.9
34.9
6.7 ± 1.1
50.3 ± 11.9
68.4
28.6 ± 4.5
43.2
6.8 ± 1.5
51.1 ± 16.0
68.1
30.2 ± 5.1
37.8
6.9 ± 1.3 52.2 ± 13.8
63.1
29.7 ± 4.8
32.7
7.0 ± 1.2
52.8 ± 13.4
61.1
29.3 ± 4.8
23.5
7.0 ± 1.2
52.6 ± 13.0
60.8
28.6 ± 4.6
Oral Combined (N=64313) (%)
HbA1c, mean %
HbA1c, mean, mmol/mol ± SD
HbA1c≤ 7% (≤ 53 mmol/mol) (%)
BMI, mean Kg/m2 ± SD
21.0
7.6 ± 1.5
59.3 ± 16.1
40.1
29.6 ± 5.0
19.3
8.1 ± 1.8
65.2 ± 19.8
30.9
31.2 ± 5.8
23.9
7.6 ± 1.4
59.7 ± 15.6
38.9
30.0 ± 5.1
21.3
7.4 ± 1.3
56.9 ± 14.4
45.6
28.4 ± 4.5
11.5
7.6 ± 1.7
59.3 ± 18.7
44.3
30.1 ± 5.4
22.0
7.6 ± 1.5
59.6 ± 16.3
40.5
29.9 ± 5.1
27.9
7.6 ± 1.4
59.7 ± 15.4
38.9
29.6 ± 5.0
29.5
7.5 ± 1.4
58.9 ± 14.9
39.5
29.0 ± 4.8
Oral + Insulin (N=29095) (%)
HbA1c, mean %
HbA1c, mean, mmol/mol ± SD
HbA1c≤ 7% (≤ 53 mmol/mol) (%)
BMI, mean Kg/m2 ± SD
10.1
8.1 ± 1.6
65.4 ± 17.0
24.3
30.6 ± 5.3
7.9
8.7 ± 1.9
71.1 ± 20.9
20.7
31.3 ± 5.9
10.8
8.2 ± 1.5
65.8 ± 16.7
22.5
31.0 ± 5.4
10.0
7.9 ± 1.4
62.7 ± 15.8
28.4
29.5 ± 4.9
3.6
8.0 ± 1.9
63.7 ± 20.7
33.9
30.3 ± 5.5
8.2
8.1 ± 1.6
65.1 ± 17.4
25.5
30.6 ± 5.4
12.3
8.2 ± 1.5
65.9 ± 16.8
23.0
30.7 ± 5.3
20.7
8.1 ± 1.5
65.1 ± 16.0
22.5
30.5 ± 5.3
Insulin monotherapy (N=21710) (%)
HbA1c, mean %
HbA1c, mean, mmol/mol ± SD
HbA1c≤ 7% (≤ 53 mmol/mol) (%)
BMI, mean Kg/m2 ± SD
7.6
7.9 ± 1.7
62.7 ± 18.5
32.9
28.6 ± 5.1
6.9
8.6 ± 2.2
70.9 ± 24.3
25.1
27.9 ± 5.6
6.4
7.9 ± 1.7
63.3 ± 18.6
31.3
29.0 ± 5.3
9.8
7.7 ± 1.5
60.2 ± 16.2
36.2
28.6 ± 4.9
3.9
7.7 ± 2.0
60.7 ± 22.2
44.9
29.2 ± 5.1
6.5
7.9 ± 1.7
62.4 ± 18.6
33.8
28.8 ± 5.3
8.6
7.9 ± 1.6
62.9 ± 17.9
31.7
28.6 ± 5.1
13.7
8.0 ± 1.6
63.6 ± 17.5
28.8
28.9 ± 5.0
aN=214,867 patients with HbA1c available. b202,451 with body mass index (BMI) available cMicro- or Macroalbuminuria d N= 202,938 with plasma creatinine available for calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
Table 1: Patient characteristics, according to age groups, steps of treatment and diabetes duration.