All patients (N=286791) Lifestyle changes (N=69924) Oral monotherapy (N=101749) Oral combined (N=64313) Oral + Insulin (N=29095) Insulin monotherapy (N=21710)
Age ( years) mean (SD) 68.2 (11.4) 67.5 (12.2) 68.1 (11.4) 68.2 (10.6) 68.7 (10.4) 70.2 (11.9)
Sex, (% of males) 53.7 54.2 55.0 54.8 46.6 52.3
Diabetes duration, mean years (SD) 6.5 (5.1) 5.03 (3.97) 5.63 (4.14) 7.58 (4.99) 9.30 (6.47) 8.86 (6.86)
HbA1c, % mean (SD)a 7.1 (1.5) 6.3 (1.0) 6.9 (1.3) 7.6 (1.5) 8.1 (1.6) 7.9 (1.7)
HbA1c, mmol/mol, mean (SD)a 54.6 ± 16.0 45.7 ± 11.0 52.1 ± 14.0 59.4 ± 16.1 65.4 ± 17.0 62.7 ± 18.5
HbA1c ≤ 7% (≤ 53 mmol/mol) (%)a 56.1 85.4 63.7 40.1 24.3 32.9
BMI (Kg/m2), mean (SD)b 29.6 (5.0) 29.4 (4.8) 29.6 (4.9) 29.6 (5.0) 30.6 (5.3) 28.7 (5.1)
Obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) (%)b 45.4 43.8 45.5 45.2 53.4 38.3
Current Smoker 15.6 16.8 16.3 15.0 12.6 15.2
Any Macrovascular 17.4 13.5 16.7 18.2 27.1 30.9
   Coronary % 11.9 8,1 10.2 11.1 17.1 19.0
   Cerebrovascular % 6.7 5.0 6.1 6.0 9.3 11.5
Retinopathy % 5.8 1.5 2.7 6.3 17.8 17.0
Nephropathyc% 16.7 11.3 14.3 17.7 25.2 28.6
Renal functiond %
eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, %
eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2, %
eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, %

81.6
17.1
1.3

83.7
15.2
1.1

83.9
15.4
0.7

83.4
16.0
0.6

76.7
21.7
1.5

63.7
29.4
6.8
aN=214,867 patients with at least one HbA1c measurement. b202,451 with body mass index (BMI) available cMicroalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria,
dN= 202,938 with plasma creatinine available for calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
Table 2: Patient characteristics according to glycaemic-lowering step of treatment.