Figure 3: Tactile detection of Von Frey monofilament was negatively associated to autonomic neuropathy shown as mean variance of heart rate (beats/min) in the top panel, and to the standard deviation of the mean RR interval (ms) in the middle panel. The lower panel shows association between efficacy of descending pain modulation and the sensory response to pinprick, done with a 26 gr. von Frey monofilament.