Variables Patients (n=20) Healthy volunteers (n=16) Significance
Basic data Age (years) 58.3 (±12.0) 62.6 (±10.5) NS
Sex (male/female) 10/10 7/9 NS
Body Mass Index kg/m2­ 28.0 (±3.62) 25.8 (±3.38) NS
Diabets duration (years) 15.8 (±10.0) - -
HbA1c (%) 8.0 (±1.0) - -
Hypertension% 81 19 P=0.001
Beta-blocker (%) 27 0 P=0.04
Sensorimotor neuropathy First sensation Von Frey (g) *3.0 (0.8-12.5) *1.0 (0.4-1.4) P=0.03
Sensory score (VAS) to 26 grinprick   2.6±1.3 P=0.10
Muscle pressure (KPa) 1.9(±0.8) 358±171 283±110 P=0.12
Autonomous neuropathy Mean heart rate variability 7.1±5.6 13.3±8.1 P=0.02
Mean SD of heart rate 3.3±2.0 5.6±2.8 P=0.01
LF norm *44.3 (21-76) 71.2 (57-87) P=0.04
HF norm *55.7 (24-79) 28.8(13-43) P=0.04
LF/HF *0.8(0.27-3.3) 2.47(1.3-6.8) P=0.04
Conditioning Pain modulation Absolute increase after CPM (kPa 44±69 102±73 P=0.02
Relative increase after CPM (%) 14±15 37±29 P=0.005
Table 1: Subject characteristics, Patient characteristics, presented as means (± standard deviation), except Von Frey marked with a * indicating data presented as median (inter quartile range).