Characteristic Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Pre-gestational Diabetes Mellitus OR (95%CI) §Adjusted OR(95%CI)
569 116
Emergency C/S 98 (17.3%) 28 -24.10% 1.94 (1.14-3.28)  
Elective C/S 48 -8.50% 26 -22.40% 3.68 (2.05-6.58)  
C/S (elective and emergency) 148 -26.00% 54(46.6%) 2.47(1.64-3.73)* 2.6 (1.66-4.09)*
APGAR scores at 5 minutes<7 6 (1.1%) 5 -4.30% 4.21 (1.09-15.9) 2.36 (0.64-8.68)
Birth weight 3197.60±556.67 3227.34±804.88*    
Macrosomia 30 -5.30% 13 -11.20% 2.26 (1.08-4.68) 3.67(1.75-7.71)*
Stillbirth 5 (0.9%) 4 -3.40% 4.01(0.89-17.52) 1.96 (0.45-8.50)
Delivery < 37 weeks 48 -8.50% 21(18.1%) 2.39 (1.32-4.31) 2.63 (1.49-4.70)*
Table 2: Comparison of maternal and perinatal outcomes between women with gestational and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus; OR= Odds Ratio, CI= Confidence intervals, C/S= Cesarean section; §Adjustment for maternal age, parity and gestational age *p-value <0.05