Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Any microvascular complication  
Each ↑ by 44 mg/dL in TG 1.16 (1.11-1.22)
Each ↑ 8 mg/dL in HDL-C 0.92 (0.88-0.96)
  Diabetic kidney disease  
Each ↑by ~45 mg/dL in TG 1.23 (1.16-1.31)
Each ↑ 8 mg/dL in HDL-C 0.86 (0.82-0.91)
Each ↑ by ~45 mg/dL in TG 1.09 (1.02-1.16)*
Each ↑ 8 mg/dL in HDL-C 0.93 (0.86-1.0)*
Diabetic kidney disease was defined as either proteinuria >300 mg/L, albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio ≥ 30 µg/mg measured in a single morning urine sample; or>20 µg/min in timed overnight urine collections; or >30 mg/24 h in a 24-hour urine), or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Retinopathy (including diabetic macular edema) was defined as laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy; Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy (ETDRS) staging ≥ 0 on fundus photography; Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale 3, 4 or 5 on dilated ophthalmoscopy, or moderate or severe maculopathy (Diabetic Macular Edema Disease Severity Scale).
Table 2: REALIST-Micro: association of triglycerides (TG) and HDL cholesterol with risk for diabetic kidney disease and/or diabetic retinopathy. Data from Sacks et al. [35].