Therapy Advantages Disadvantages
AIT Achieve excellent glycemic control without hypoglycemia

Possible to achieve insulin-free status

Minimally invasive transplant

Many clinical cases

Donor shortage


Need for immunosuppression

Poor long-term efficacy for insulin independence

XIT Reduced occurrence of unaware hypoglycemia

No immunosuppression with encapsulation technology

No donor shortage

Sterile donor pigs

Limited clinical experience

Low efficacy compared to AIT at present

Possible zoonosis from pig islets

DNA Prevent progression of type 1 diabetes by suppressing auto-immune activation

Recent clinical trial using GAD65 vaccination was not so effective

Beta-cell replacement therapy is needed once patients lose the majority of islets

IPS Possible to create beta cells

Infinite cell expansion

Japan leads this field

No ethical issues, as opposed to the use of embryonic stem cells

No immunosuppressants needed when created from patients’ own cells

Still experimental

Technical difficulty creating beta cells

Note. AIT = Allogeneic Islet Transplantation; XIT = Islet Xenotransplantation; DNA = DNA Vaccination; IPS = Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapy
Table 1: Main topics covered in the lecture on each therapy’s advantages and disadvantages