Plasma D-lactate tertiles

 
Lowest (n=171) Middle (n=171) Highest (n=171) P-value
Age, years 59.2 ± 6.9 59.9 ± 7.1 59.1 ± 6.8 0.43
Sex, % men 57.3 66.1 64.9 0.19
Body mass index, kg/m2 27.3 ± 3.7 28.0 ± 4.1 30.0 ± 4.4 <0.001
Waist circumference, cm 95.5 ± 10.9 98.6 ± 11.2 103.5± 12.0 <0.001
IGM, % 23.4 20.5 25.1 0.58
T2DM, % 11.7 21.6 35.1 <0.001
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L 5.4 [5.0-5.8] 5.6 [5.2-6.1] 5.9 [5.4-7.1] <0.001
HOMA2-IR 0.9 [0.7-1.3] 1.2 [0.9-1.6] 1.4 [1.0-2.3] <0.001
Plasma D-lactate, μmol/L 5.5 [4.6-6.3] 8.5 [7.8-9.7] 14.5 [12.6-17.1] <0.001
Plasma L-lactate, μmol/L 922 [795-1054] 1143[974-1315] 1634 [1358-1884] <0.001
HbA1C, % 5.7 ± 0.7 5.9 ± 0.7 6.1 ± 0.8 <0.001
Glucose-lowering medication, % 5.3 9.4 17.0 0.002
Prior CVD, % 21.6 26.9 32.7 0.07
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.2 ± 1.3 4.8 ± 1.6 5.2 ± 1.7 <0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.1 [0.8-1.5] 1.4 [1.0-1.9] 1.8 [1.4-2.4] <0.001
Lipid-lowering medication, % 15.8 17.0 20.5 0.50
Current smoker, % 20.5 19.3 22.8 0.72
Former smoker, % 52.0 51.5 51.5 0.99
BP-lowering medication, % 28.7 38.0 46.2 0.004
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 90.5 ± 11.5 90.2 ± 12.6 93.8 ± 12.1 0.009
Data are presented as means ± SD, medians (interquartile range), or percentages, as appropriate; the ranges of the plasma D-lactate tertiles were [2.6-7.1], [7.1-10.7] and [10.7-32.4] μmol/L respectively. IGM: impaired glucose metabolism; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; HOMA2-IR: homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; HbA1C: glycated hemoglobin; CVD: cardiovascular disease; BP: blood pressure; eGFR: estimated glomerular ļ¬ltration rate.
Table 1: General characteristics of the study population stratified according to tertiles of plasma D-lactate.