
No diabetes 
Diabetes, no insulin 
Diabetes, + insulin 

n=674 
n=289 
n=99 
MMSE score, mean ± SD 
25.5 ± 3.4 
24.8 ± 3.6** 
24.2 ± 4.0*** 
Verbal fluency, mean ± SD 
28.6 ± 12.5 
26.5 ± 12.3* 
25.0 ± 11.8** 
Digit span, mean ± SD 
14.1 ± 3.8 
13.5 ± 3.5* 
12.7 ± 3.4*** 
WLL delayed recall, mean ± SD 
3.7 ± 2.9 
3.5 ± 2.8 
3.4 ± 2.7 
LM delayed recall, mean ± SD 
19.0 ± 9.8 
17.4 ± 9.8* 
17.9 ± 9.4 
Trailmaking A, mean ± SD 
83.7 ± 57.4 
89.1 ± 61.6 
94.4 ± 62.5* 
Trailmaking B, mean ± SD 
205.3 ± 84.3 
214.7 ± 84.5 
232.4 ± 76.8*** 
Block design, mean ± SD 
20.7 ± 9.1 
19.7 ± 9.3 
17.9 ± 8.3** 
Subjects are divided into three subgroups: those who did not have diabetes, those who had diabetes without insulin treatment and those who had diabetes with insulin
treatment. Mean ± SD with Ttest is used to describe the distributions and comparisons of test scores in each cognitive domain between those who did not have diabetes
and either diabetic subgroup. P values for the statistical significance are shown with *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001
WLL = Word learning list; LM = Logical memory 