Figure 3: Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was measured in kidney after progressive resistance exercise training. Upstream of mTOR A)PI3K and B) p-Akt showed higher protein expression in diabetic animals and both PI3K and p-Akt were lower expressed in exercised diabetic animals. C) p-4EBP1 demonstrated higher activation in diabetic group, while in exercised diabetic group, protein expression of p-4EBP1 were lower compared to diabetic group (5 animals/group). Data are reported as means ± SEM. Two way ANOVA, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.