Total HAI (z score) WBAR (%)
  Low (<1.46) High (≥1.46) Low (<8.75) High (≥8.75)
n (male/female) 70 (24/46) 35 (13/22) 35 (11/24) 35 (15/20) 35 (9/26)
Age (years) 76.6 ± 5.6 75.5 ± 5.0 77.6 ± 6.0 74.3 ± 4.3 78.8 ± 5.9****
Duration of diabetes (years) 20.6 ± 8.9 19.3 ± 9.4 21.9± 8.3 18.6 ± 8.2 22.6 ± 9.2#
Education years 9.59 ± 1.80 10.0 ± 1.9 9.0 ± 1.4* 10.1 ± 1.8 9.0 ± 1.6*
Smoking (-/+) 64/6 34/1 30/5 34/1 30/5#
 Treatment (Diet/OHA/Ins) 14/45/11 5/26/4 9/19/7 7/25/3 7/20/8
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.4 ± 4.4 23.3 ± 3.8 23.6 ± 5.0 22.5± 3.6 24.3 ± 5.0#
Apo E ε4 (-/+) 61/9 30/5 31/4 31/4 30/5
Systolic BP (mmHg) 134.8 ± 17.6 136.3 ± 16.0 133.3 ± 19.0 134.5 ± 15.1 135.1 ± 20.0
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 71.6 ± 11.1 74.0 ± 9.8 69.2 ± 11.9# 72.8 ± 9.0 70.5 ± 12.9
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 55.9 ± 15.5 55.3 ± 15.3 56.4 ± 16.0 57.8 ± 15.7 54.0 ±15.4
Triglycerides  (mg/dL) 113.2 ± 55.7 112.4 ± 60.9 114.0 ± 50.9 95.5 ± 42.2 130.9 ± 62.2*
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 103.2 ±25.4 103.3 ± 22.4 105.1 ± 31.3 101.2 ± 23.6 105.2 ± 27.2
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 103.2 ±25.4 103.3 ± 22.4 105.1 ± 31.3 101.2 ± 23.6 105.2 ± 27.2
FBG (mg/dL) 133.2 ± 30.8 136.2 ± 31.9 130.3 ± 29.7 134.2 ± 29.4 132.3 ± 32.5
HbA1c (%) 6.96 ±0.71 6.93 ± 0.67 6.98 ± 0.76 6.96± 0.75 6.95 ± 0.68
Fasting c-peptide (ng/mL) 2.08 ± 1.15 2.30 ± 1.21 1.85 ± 1.05 2.04 ± 1.16 2.11 ± 1.15
 hs-CRP (mg/L) 1.06 ± 1.44 1.01 ± 1.52 1.11 ± 1.37 0.89 ± 1.31 1.23 ± 1.55#
ICAM-1 (μg/L) 218.1 ±80.8 209.2 ± 60.0 227.0 ± 97.3 190.8 ± 57.0 245.4 ± 91.9***
TNF-α (pg/mL) 1.96 ± 0.96 1.99 ± 0.90 1.93 ± 1.02 1.58 ± 0.73 2.34 ± 1.01****
 IL-6 (pg/mL) 1.78 ± 1.57 1.64 ± 1.48 1.93 ± 1.67 1.49 ± 1.52 2.08 ± 1.59*
Adiponectin  (μg/mL) 16.82 ± 11.41     16.51± 11.38 17.13 ± 11.59 16.57 ± 11.00 17.08 ± 11.96
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.60 ± 1.45 6.01 ± 1.30 5.17 ± 1.48* 5.38 ± 1.15 5.82± 1.70
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.84 ±0.26 0.87 ± 0.17 0.91 ± 0.32 0.70 ± 0.15 1.01 ± 0.26****
Cystatin C (mg/L) 1.11 ± 0.40 1.14 ± 0.43 1.08 ± 0.37 0.98 ± 0.22 1.25 ± 0.49*** 
 eGFRcys (ml/min/1.73m2) 64.8 ±22.8 63.0 ± 20.6 66.6 ± 24.9 71.6 ± 17.1 58.0 ± 25.7*
 eGFRcys<60ml/min/1.73m2 (-/+)  38/32 18/17 20/15 25/10 13/22***
ACR (mg/g creatinine) 54.5 ± 84.7 40.5 ± 59.8 68.6 ± 102.9* 37.4 ± 50.1 71.7 ± 107.0#
Albuminuria  (-/+) 41/29 20/8 14/21*** 25/10 16/19*
Cognitive test scores          
MMSE 25.14 ±3.21 25.60± 2.58 24.69± 3.72 25.34 ± 2.82 24.94 ± 3.60
Immediate word recall 6.44 ±1.54 6.81 ± 1.30 6.07 ± 1.69* 7.03 ± 1.06 5.85 ± 1.72***
 Delayed word recall 6.47 ±2.41 7.14 ± 1.79 5.80 ± 2.77* 7.29 ± 1.95 5.66 ± 2.58***
 DSST 32.62 ±11.10 35.86 ± 12.25 29.18 ± 8.66*** 36.77 ± 11.56 28.21 ± 8.79*
Stroop 18.51 ±9.97 16.62 ± 7.85 20.47 ± 11.56 16.11 ± 7.79 20.99 ± 11.40*
MR findings          
SBI (0/1-3/3<) 30/25/15 14/14/7 16/11/8 20-09-2006 10/16/9#
PWMLs (0/1/2/3) 26/31/11/2 14/15/6/0 12/16/5/2 19/12/4/0 7/19/7/2*
SWMLs (0/1/2/3) 20/36/12/2 12/17/6/0 8/19/6/2 14/17/4/0 6/19/8/2#
Table 1: Clinical and biochemical characteristics of elderly diabetic patients stratified by median of hippocampus atrophy index (HAI) and whole brain atrophy rate (WBAR).