Normal glucose metabolism N=623 Newly-diagnosed disturbed glucose metabolism N=384 Pre-existent diabetes mellitus N=210 p-value
Demographic data
Age, mean (SD) in years 59 (14) 66 (13) 65 (12) <0.001
Men, n (%) 316 (51) 202 (53) 124 (59) 0.112
Caucasian, n (%) 492 (82) 296 (82) 123 (63) <0.001
Risk factors
Hypertension*, n (%) 263 (42) 233 (61) 153 (73) <0.001
Use of cholesterol-lowering drugs prior to the event, n (%) 153 (25) 131 (34) 126 (60) <0.001
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 29 (5) 30 (8) 17 (8) 0.063
Current smoking, n (%) 228 (37) 99 (26) 48 (23) <0.001
BMI, mean (SD) in kg/m2 26 (3) 27 (4) 28 (4) <0.001
Medical history
TIA/ischemic stroke, n (%) 139 (22) 102 (27) 77 (37) <0.001
Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 82 (13) 69 (18) 65 (31) <0.001
Event characteristics
TIA, n (%) 287 (46) 133 (35) 69 (33) <0.001
NIHSS, median (IQR)‡ 2 (1-5) 3 (1-6) 3 (2-5) 0.006
TOAST classification <0.001
Large artery disease, n (%) 82 (13) 94 (25) 39 (19)  
Cardio-embolism, n (%) 68 (11) 51 (13) 30 (14)  
Small vessel disease, n (%) 131 (21) 62 (16) 50 (24)  
Other determined disease, n (%) 47 (8) 12 (3) 7 (3)  
Undetermined disease, n (%) 295 (47) 165 (43) 84 (40)  
Glucose assessment
Fasting plasma glucose, mean (SD) in mmol/L 4.9 (0.6) 6.2 (1.4) 7.9 (3.0) <0.001
2-hour post-load glucose, mean (SD) in mmol/L 7.5 (2.4) 11.2 (3.6) NA <0.001
Glycosylated hemoglobin, mean (SD) in mmol/mol 36 (4) 43 (8) 58 (17) <0.001
Table 1: Patient characteristics per glucose metabolism group (* defined as the use of antihypertensive drugs prior to the ischemic stroke/TIA, †missing in 490 patients, imputated BMI used, ‡in patients with ischemic stroke only).