Figure 1: Association of intestine GIP mRNA and fasting insulin or glucose in DIO mice (Cohort 1). GIP expression was determined in DIO mice at 10 wks on HFD. A. GIP mRNA in the fasting condition. The expression was examined in duodenum (Du), jejunum (Je), ileum (Il) and colon (Co) in mice after overnight fast. Chow-fed mice were used as lean mice in the control. B. GIP mRNA in fed mice. Samples were collected in the morning after mouse food intake at night. C. Fasting insulin. The test was done after overnight fast. D. Fasting glucose. Data is presented as mean ± SE (n=5). *p<0.01; **p<0.001 RYGB vs. lean by student’s t test.