1.      Insulin resistance: usually associated with obesity
2.      Family history of T2DM in first- or second-degree relative
3.      Ethnicity: African-American, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, Native American, Canadian First Nation
4.      Small size for gestational age (intrauterine growth restriction)
5.      Maternal gestational diabetes
6.      Insulin resistance of puberty
7.      Lack of physical activity
8.      High-calorie diet
Table 4: Risk factors for T2DM in youth. Adapted from Botero D [38].