Structural changes in skeletal muscle
↑ fiber size
↑ percentage of type IIa fibers (Possibly type I fibers)
↑ the  capillary density and blood flow
Biochemical changes in skeletal muscle
↑  insulin signaling kinetics (1-phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and GLUT4 activity)
↑ non-insulin signaling kinetics ( 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase activity)
↑ enzymes related to glucose metabolism [hexokinase, glycogen synthase, and key oxidative enzymes (e.g., citrate synthase, aconitase, succinate dehydrogenase)]
↑ myoglobin
Systemic influences of physical activity
↑ oxygen uptake and functional capacity at submaximal and maximal workloads
↑lipoprotein lipase and other key enzymes to improve lipid control
↓ excessive hepatic secretion of glucose and VLDL
Improvements in counter-regulatory hormone levels/activity (e.g. Cortisol, IGF-I)
Improvements in comorbid conditions (e.g., hypertension, visceral obesity, systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia)
Table 1: Potential mechanisms by which exercise enhance glucose homeostasis [21].