1 Malhotra V[60] Pre- post design 20 type 2 DM patients Yoga were performed every day along with medicines in the study group while the control group only with medicines and light excercises. 40 days The basal blood glucose, nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve was measured and repeated after 40 days of Yogic regime  Control group nerve function parameters deteriorated over the period of study, indicating that diabetes is a slowly progressive disease involving the nerves. Yoga asanas have a beneficial effect on glycaemic control and improve nerve function in mild to moderate Type 2 diabetes with sub-clinical neuropathy.
2 Manjunatha et al. [48] Pre-post design 20 healthy young volunteers Each volunteer performed four sets of asanas in random order for 5 consecutive days each with a 2-day gap between consecutive sets of asanas. The four sets of asanas were : Dhanurasana&matsyendrasana, halasana&vajrasana naukasana&bhujangasana, setubandhasana&pavanamuktasana 4-week Blood samples were collected on days 4 and 5 of each set of asanas for measurement of glucose and insulin levels before the asanas, within 10 min after performing the asanas, and 30 min after ingestion of 75 g glucose, which in turn was ingested immediately after the second blood sample. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also done before and after the study. On the days of the pre-study or post-study OGTT, no asanas were done  Performance of asanas led to increased sensitivity of the B cells of pancreas to the glucose signal. The increased sensitivity seems to be a sustained change resulting from a progressive long-term effect of asanas.
3 Malhotra V[52] Pre- post design 20 NIDDM patients 13 specific Yogaasanas were taught in the study group and the study parameters assessed before and after study period. 40 days Serum insulin, plasma fasting and one hour postprandial blood glucose levels and anthropometric parameters were measured before and after yoga asanas At the end of 40 days of performing the asanas, the study participants had a significant decrease in fasting glucose levels, waist-hip ratio and beneficial changes in insulin levels than the previous levels.
4 Bijlani RL et al.  [50] Pre- post design heterogeneous group of 98 patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and a variety of other illnesses yogasanas pranayama (breathing exercises), relaxation techniques 9 days fasting plasma glucose and serum lipid profile Fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), VLDL , the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and total triglycerides were significantly lower, and HDL cholesterol significantly higher, on the last day of the course compared to the first day of the course.
5 Kristal AR[54] Retrospective analysis 15,500 adults recruited for VITAL cohort study Physical activity (including yoga) during the past 10 years, diet, height, and weight at recruitment and at ages 30 and 45 10 years Measures were based on self-reporting, and past weight was retrospectively ascertained. Regular yoga practice was associated with attenuated weight gain, most strongly among individuals who were overweight. Although causal inference from this observational study is not possible, results are consistent with the hypothesis that regular yoga practice can benefit individuals who wish to maintain or lose weight
6 Chaya MS[62] Comparison study 30 healthy young males 15 healthy young male patients practicing yoga for long termwere compared with 15 young males not practicing yoga    insulin sensitivity was measured in the fasting state by the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp Long term yoga practice (for 1 year or more) is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and attenuates the negative relationship between body weight or waist circumference and insulin sensitivity.
7 Telles S [55] Pre- post design single group of 47 healthy persons persons were assessed on the first and last day of a yoga and diet change program 6 days Body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, mid-arm circumference, body composition, hand grip strength, postural stability, serum lipid profile and fasting serum leptin levels A 6-day yoga and diet change program decreased the BMI and the fat-free mass. Total cholesterol also decreased due to reduced HDL levels and a decrease in serum leptin levels
8 Kyizom T[61] Comparison study Sixty patients of type 2 diabetes control group on only conventional medical therapy and yoga-group on conventional medical therapy along with pranayama and yoga-asana. 45 days Basal recordings of P300 and blood glucose were taken at the time of recruitment and second recordings repeated after forty five days for both the groups. P300 was recorded . yoga has a beneficial effect on P300 and thus can be incorporated along with the conventional medical therapy for improving cognitive brain functions in diabetes.
9 Balaji PA [59] Comparison study 44 type 2 DM patients 22 patients were yoga group and the control group did not practice yoga 3 months FBS, PPBS, Hb A1c, lipid profile and anthropometric measurements like weight, BMI, Waist-hip ratio were estimated before the starting and at the end of the study period Yoga group had significant decrease in FBS, Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides and LDL with P < 0.001, compared with control group (n = 22).
10 Hegde, Shreelaxmi V, et al. [78] Controlled clinical trial 123 type 2 diabetic patients aged between 40 and 75 years Patients were grouped as 60 for yoga and 63 for control 3 months Malondialdehyde  glutathione superoxide dismutase , vitamin C and vitamin E  were measured to assess the oxidative stress and antioxidant status. BMI, waist circumference, waist-tohip ratio, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), and HbA1c were analyzed. In comparison with standard care alone, yoga resulted in significant reduction in BMI, glycemic control, and malondialdehyde and increase in glutathione and vitamin C. There were no differences in waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, vitamin E, or superoxide dismutase in the yoga group at follow-up.
11 Lee[53] Comparison study 16 post-menopausal women>36%body weight 8 subjects were test group taught yoga and the other 8 were control 16 weeks variables of body composition, visceral fat, serum adiponectin, and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in all the participants before and after the 16-week study yoga exercise improves adiponectin level, serum lipids, and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese postmenopausal women. 
12 Nagarathna R, et al. [79] prospective two-armed interventional randomized control study  277 type 2 diabetics of both genders aged above 28 years study group were allocated to a yoga-based life style modification program or exercise-based life style modification program. Integrated yoga special technique for diabetes included yogasanas, pranayama, meditation and lectures on yogic life style. Control intervention included physical exercises and life style education 9 months  Medication score, blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid profile were assessed at baseline and after 9 months. Yoga based life style modification program is similar to exercise-based life style modification in reducing blood glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL. Yoga is better than exercise in decreasing oral hypoglycemic medication requirement and LDL; and increasing HDL in type 2 diabetics.
13 McDermott et al. [80] Randomized control trial 41 participants with elevated fasting blood glucose in Bangalore, India Study group were randomized to either yoga (n = 21) or a walking control (n = 20). Participants were asked to either attend yoga classes or complete monitored walking 3–6 days per week for eight weeks 8 weeks Primary outcomes included: changes in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and cholesterol and also measures of psychological well-being including changes in depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect and perceived stress Among Indians with elevated fasting blood glucose, participation in an 8-week yoga intervention resulted in greater weight loss and reduction in waist circumference when compared to a walking control. There were no between group differences in fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin resistance or any other factors related to diabetes risk or psychological well-being. There were significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, anxiety, depression, negative affect and perceived stress in both the yoga intervention and walking control over the course of the study. Yoga offers a promising lifestyle intervention for decreasing weight-related type 2 diabetes risk factors and potentially increasing psychological well-being
14 V. P. Jyotsna[63] Randomised control trial 120 patients of diabetes on oral medication along with diet and exercise Study groups were randomized into two groups: (1) Continued to receive standard treatment for diabetes. (2) Patients administered comprehensive yogic breathing program and monitored to regularly practice yoga in addition to standard treatment of diabetes. 6 months Glycemic control, quality of life and cardiac autonomic function tests (CAFT) were repeated after 6 months of intervention and compared with those before randomisation. sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions significantly improved from baseline in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing.
Table 3: Studies comparing the effects of yoga.