Figure 2A: Molecular model of the intrarenal RAS activation and Ang 1-7 action in diabetes. (A) Pathway of hyperglycemiainduction of intrarenal RAS activation and kidney injury in diabetes. Hyperglycemia stimulates Agt gene expression via Nrf2 expression and enhances ROS generation and pro-fibrotic gene expression via activation of NADPH oxidase and TGF-β1 signalling by Ang II, respectively, which eventually leads to kidney damage.