Reference No of Subjects (males) Age (ys) Characteristics Intervention Outcome
HbA1c(%) Insulin doses/day    
Bernardini et al. [142] 90 T1D 14.8 ± 2.7 60 min exercise/wk: 8.9  ± 0.5 Mixed: 7.4  ± 0.6 NA Prospective cohort study: aerobic activity defined as: walking, cycling, skating and swimming. Mixed defined as: soccer, volley- ball, tennis, basketball. No intensity/quantity shown. [DA/IA NA] - Significant lower HbA1c levels in children performing > 360 min (mixed training) of exercise compared to  children < 60 min/wk  (aerobic training)
D’Hooge et al. [141] 16 T1D (NA) 8 EG 8 CG 14.1 (10-18) EG: 7.9 ± 1.3→ 7.7 ± 1.2 CG: 8.7 ± 0.8→ 8.7 ±  0.9 0.96 → 0.9  IU.kg-1.day-1 20 wks, 2/wk, 70 min, aerobic and strength group. Aerobic part: 60-75% of HRpeak. Strength training: 20 RM→ 12 RM,3 sets, 10 repetitions, 60 sec rest. [IA+, DA+]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - EG: Capillary glucose significant ↓ after training, HbA1c not significant ↓
- EG: Daily insulin doses: significant ↓
- EG: VO2peak ↓ not significant (1478 → 1425 (mL/min))
Heyman et al. [144] 16 T1D (0) 9 = EG 7= CG EG: 15.9 ± 0.5 CG: 16.3 ± 0.4 EG: 7.3 ± 0.9 → 7.1 ± 0.8 CG: 8.5 ± 1.3 → 8.2 ± 1.2 EG: 1.0 ± 0.1 U.kg-1.day-1 CG: 1.1 ± 0.1  U.kg-1.day-1 22 x 2h + 25x 1 h of training during 6 months of aerobic and strength training in adolescent girls. [IA-,DA-]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - Insulin dose per day ↓ exercise group
- HbA1c ↓ not significant in EG compared with CG
- [P]FGL were significant ↓ in EG compared with CG.
- PWC170 was not significant ↑ in watts/kg.
Mosher et al. [142] 10 T1D (10) 11 CG 17.2 ± 1.2 Pre – Post EG: 7.72 ±1.26 → 6.76 ± 1.07 CG vs. EG: 4.47 ± 0.6 vs. 6.76 ± 1.07 1.02  ± 0.12 IU.kg-1.day-1 45 min, 3/wk; 12 wks. Aerobic circuit training + strength training. [IA-/DA NA]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - HbA1c ↓ significant
- FGL plasma was unchanged
*Data presented as mean ± SD; N° of Subjects (males) = total number of subjects and the number between brackets are the number of males; [P]FGL = fasting glucose levels; EG = exercise group; CG = control Group; T1D = Type 1 Diabetes; NA = not applicable; [VP]: Venous Plasma Glucose; [V]: Venous Whole blood[P]: Plasma; [C]: Capillary; IA: Insulin Advice before/after Exercise; DA: Dietary Advice before/during or after Exercise; ↓: Decrease; [PAS]: Post Absorptive State (5-11h after last meal); [PP]: Post Prandial (during 4h after meal); [FS]: Fasting State (> 12h after meal); HbA1c: Glycaeted Haemoglobin; VO2max: Maximal Oxygen Uptake; VO2peak: Peak Oxygen Uptake; HRpeak: Heart Rate Peak
Table 4: Effects of combined (aerobic and strength) training program on glycaemic control in T1D patients. (Table based on [100]).