Findings Affected region Mechanisms References
Fetus from GDM
Anencephaly, holoprosencephaly, syntelencephaly CNS Increased oxidative stress [147]
Neural tube defects CNS Hyperinsulinemia-increasedoxidative stress [148]
CNS malformations CNS Hyperglycaemia [149]
Infants from GDM
Increasedlatency invisual evoked potentials Visual cortex nr [102]
Alterations inthe pattern ofevent-related potentials CNS nr [103]
Impairedrecognition memory Hippocampus Alterations inevent-related potentials [106]
Motor deficit, inattention CNS nr [100]
Impairedrecognition memory CNS Iron deficiency [15]
Impairedrecognition memory Hippocampus Changesofevent-related potentials [16]
No differencein the potentials ofauditory response Brainstem nr [150]
Alterations inevent-related memory CNS Deficitin rememberingsequencesofevents with multiplesteps [151]
Motor deficit, inattention CNS Correlates with the mother glycaemic control [101]
Poor performancein neurologicaltests CNS Not correlated withmaternalglycaemic control [100]
Motor deficit CNS Correlated with the maternal glycaemic control [152]
CNS: Central Nervous System; nr: not reported
Table 4: Effect GDM in the human fetal CNS function and development.