Risk factors β coefficient S.E. Wald p OR OR 95% of CI
Lower Upper
Intercept -5.281 0.019 79293 <0.0001 0.005    
Age group (<55=0 ; ≥ 55=1 ) 0.308 0.008 1473 <0.0001 1.36 1.34 1.38
Gender (female=0 ; male=1) 0.619 0.008 6058 <0.0001 1.86 1.83 1.89
Duration of DM (< 5= 0 ; ≥ 5=1) 1.249 0.008 23328 <0.0001 3.49 3.43 3.54
History of family diabetes (no=0 ; yes=1) 0.598 0.008 5542 <0.0001 1.82 1.79 1.85
User of insulin (no=0 ; yes=1) 1.662 0.018 8414 <0.0001 5.27 5.09 5.46
History of hypertension  (no=0 ; yes=1) 0.861 0.008 11869 <0.0001 2.36 2.33 2.40
BMI (non-obese = 0; obese=1) -1.003 0.017 3326 <0.0001 0.37 0.35 0.38
Physical activity (heavy =0; moderate and less=1) 0.508 0.015 1131 <0.0001 1.66 1.61 1.71
FBS  value(< 130=0; ≥ 130 =1) 0.658 0.010 3974 <0.0001 1.93 1.89 1.97
HbA1c (≤7-0=0; >7 =1) 0.677 0.009 5451 <0.0001 1.97 1.93 2.00
Anemia (no=0 ; yes=1) 0.304 0.010 937 <0.0001 1.36 1.33 1.38
Nephropathy (no=0 ; yes=1) 0.820 0.008 10884 <0.0001 2.27 2.24 2.31
DM- Diabetes Mellitus; BMI- Body Mass Index; FBS- Fasting Blood Sugar; Hba1c- Glycated Hemoglobin
Table 2: Beta coefficients from the multiple logistic regression final model predicting diabetic retinopathy for SN–DREAMS III data.