Kappa value from all citations No. samples extracted No. repeated iterations Average Kappa across citations Standard error Bias (%)*
50 1000 0.65 0.12 0.02
100 1000 0.66 0.08 0.01
0.67 200 1000 0.66 0.06 0.01
*Bias=kappa value from all citations minus average kappa across citations.
Table 3: Evaluation of statistical bias on the sampling distributions of Kappa values.