Author Place Year Cases Management Result
Broome [11] Burlington, Vermont, USA 1977 69 Nil Outbreak stopped
Helms [12] Johnson County, Iowa, USA 1981 29 Nil Outbreak stopped
Kool[13] Los Angles, California, USA 1997   Some CTs cleaned Outbreak stopped
Mitchell [14] Bolton, England 1988 60 Cleaning of a CT at a work site No more cases
Heath [16] Sydney, Australia 1995 11 51 towers cleaned Uncertain
White [17] Christchurch, NZ 2005 19 Mass shock dosing Outbreak stopped
Carr [18] Shropshire, England 2006 6 CT cleaned Outbreak stopped
Pereira [19] Norwich, England 2006 8 Super chlorination of 28 sites (including water fountains and car wash facilities) Outbreak stopped
Keramarou[20] The Valleys, South Wales 2010 22 Several CTs cleaned Outbreak stopped
CT: cooling tower; NZ: New Zealand; USA: United States of America.
Table 3: Summary of dispersed L. pneumophila outbreaks.