Characteristic Traditional Medicine Precision Medicine Personalized Medicine*
Active Ingredient Single Single Multiple
Target population Population Population Individuals
Primary focus Mean Inter-subject variability Intra-subject variability
Dose/Regimen Fixed Fixed Flexible
Beneficial Average patient Subgroup of patients Individual patients
Statistical Method Hypotheses testing
Confidence interval
Hypotheses testing
Confidence interval
Hypotheses testing
Confidence interval
Use of biomarker No Yes Yes
Blinding Yes Yes May be difficult
Objective Accuracy Accuracy
Precision
Accuracy
Precision
Reproducibility
Study design Parallel/crossover Parallel/crossover
Adaptive design
Parallel/Crossover
Adaptive design
Probability of success Low Mild-to-moderate High
*Personalized medicine = Individualized medicine
Table 2: Precision medicine versus personalized medicine.