λ μY μX AUCtrue   MW* R* P*
0 0 0.25 0.57 Bias(×103)
95% Cl
−23
(-26, -19)
15
(-18, -11)
4
(-9,1)
        MSE(×104)
95% Cl
22
(19, 25)
20
(17,22)
32
(28,26)
        Coverage (%)
95% Cl
91.2
(88.5,93.9)
93.8
(91.6, 95.6)
94.8
(92.8, 96.8)
0 0 0.50 0.638 Bias(×103)
95% Cl
- 49
(-52, -45)
-32
(-35, -28)
-7
(-12, -2)
        MSE(×104)
95% Cl
39
(35,44)
26
(23,29)
36
(31,41)
        Coverage (%)
95% Cl
76.3
(72.1,80.5)
89.6
(86.9, 92.2)
94.7
(92.7, 96.8)
0 0 1.0 0.760 Bias(×103)
95% Cl
-104
(-107, -101)
-74
(-77, -70)
2
(-4, 8)
        MSE(×104)
95% Cl
122
 (115, 130)
69
(64,74)
53
(46, 61)
        Coverage (%)
95% Cl
17.4
(14.6, 20.3)
52.3
(47.6, 56.9)
95.3
(93.1, 97.5)
*MW: Mann-Whitney estimate (i.e., image); R: Reiser’s (2000) method; P: Probit method.
**Simulation II was run 100 times. Each time, we generated 1000 simulated data sets. Each data set consists of 100 cases and 100 controls. Each subject provides two replicate
biomaker scores. True values were generated from log normal distributions and random errors were generated from normal distributions with image
Table 2: Bias, mean square error (MSE), and coverage for image from simulation II ** .