λ μY μx AUCtrue   MW* R* P*

0

0

0.25

0.570

Bias(×103)
95% Cl
−26
(-29, -22)
- 14
(-19, -10)
0
(-6,5)
        MSE(×104)
95% Cl
23
(20, 26)
30
(26,34)
41
(35,46)
        Coverage (%)
95% Cl
90.3
(87.5,93.1)
94.5
(92.6, 96.5)
95.3
(93.5, 97.1)

0

0

0.5

0.638

Bias(×103)
95% Cl
- 53
(-56, -51)
- 31
(-34, -28)
2
(-2,7)
        MSE(×104)
95% Cl
45
(40,49)
38
(33,43)
37
(40,53)
        Coverage (%)
95% Cl
72.5
(68.3,76.8)
91.4
(88.8, 93.9)
95.7
(93.9, 97.6)

0

0

1

0.76

Bias(×103)
95% Cl
- 111
(-114, -108)
- 72
(-76, -67)
17
(11,24)
        MSE(×104)
95% Cl
138
(131, 146)
83
(75,90)
67
(58,75)
        Coverage (%)
95% Cl
12.9
(10.3, 15.6)
66.1
(61.8, 70.5)
96.9
(95.2, 98.7)
*MW: Mann-Whitney estimate (i.e., image); R: Reiser’s (2000) method; P: probit method.
** Simulation III was run 100 times. Each time, we generated 1000 simulated data sets. Each data set consists of 100 cases and 100 controls. each subject provides two
replicate biomaker scores. Both true values and random errors were generated from log normal distributions with image
Table 3: Bias, mean square error (MSE), and coverage for image from simulation III**.