Fixed effects Men (n=14,110) Multilevel model
Estimates (SE) P-Value Region  (Lev 3) Cluster (Lev 2)
Age group     .4250 (.1950)** .9342 ( .0773)**
15-19 Ref  (1)      
20-24 .9081 (.0658) 0.000    
25-29 1.1543 ( .0666) 0.000    
30-34 1.0139 ( .0731) 0.000    
35-39 .8731 ( .0735) 0.000    
40-44 .6689 ( .0809) 0.000    
45-49 .6289 ( .0874) 0.000    
50-54 .4494 ( .0971) 0.000    
55-59 .0483 ( .1159) 0.677    
Education level     .2905 ( .1345)** .6325 ( .0570)**
No education Ref  (1)      
Primary .6888 ( .0496) 0.000    
Secondary 1.3294 ( .0753) 0.000    
Higher 1.6591 ( .0845) 0.000    
Place of residence     .3222 ( .1479)** .5783 ( .0521)**
Rural   Ref (0)      
Urban  1.3782 ( .0990) 0.000    
Religion     .3529 ( .1633)** .8178 (.0692)**
Christian Ref  (1)      
Muslim -.2902(.0652) 0.000    
Others -.4491(.1549) 0.004    
Ethnicity     .1915 ( .0928)** .7387 ( .0642)**
Tigrean Ref  (1)      
Affar -1.5394 ( .2571) 0.000    
Amara -.1473 ( .1491) 0.323    
Guragie -.4699 ( .1793) 0.009    
Somalie -1.5102 ( .2312) 0.000    
Sidama -.9857 ( .2895) 0.001    
Oromo -.4998 ( .1554) 0.001    
Nuwer -1.6162 ( .3240) 0.000    
Welaiyta -.3239 ( .2359) 0.170    
Others -.6514 ( .1589) 0.000    
Media exposure     .3625 ( .1666)** .7605 ( .0654)**
Yes Ref  (1)      
No 1.0182 (.0639) 0.000    
Wealth Index     .2632  (.1217)* .5032 (.0475)*
Poorest Ref (1)      
Poorer .3923 (.0742) 0.000    
Middle .5929 (.0755) 0.000    
Richer .9789 (.0761) 0.000    
Richest 1.7211 (.0868) 0.000    
Marital status     .4541 (.2072)** .9244 (.0765)**
Not married Ref (0)      
Divorced .7144 (.1356) 0.000    
Widowed .3600 (.2398) 0.133    
Married .4091 (.0411) 0.000    
Relationship with most recent sex partner     .3945 (.1808)** .8301 (.0700)**
Living with partner Ref (0)      
Boy-girl friend .4678 (.1599) 0.003    
Commercial .1433 (.3119) 0.646    
Spouse -.2006 (.1393) 0.150    
Other .3967 (.2098) 0.059    
Hear Family planning on  Mass Media     .3479 (.1601)** .7506  (.0647)**
 No Ref (0)      
Yes .9276 (.0447) 0.000    
HIV related knowledge     .2826 (.1321)** .7481 (.0647)**
Low Ref (0)      
High .5408 (.0915) 0.000    
comprehensive 1.0681 (.0901) 0.000    
HIV  related stigma     .3216 (.1480)** .6822 (.0606)**
No stigma Ref (0)      
Low -.4064 (.0492) 0.000    
Moderate -1.0235 (.0545) 0.000    
High -1.2272 (.2029) 0.000    
HIV risky behaviour     .4185 (.1913)** .8461 (.0709)**
No risk Ref (0)      
Some risk -.0047 (.0473) 0.920    
High -.4583 (.0944) 0.000    
Knowing Place for HIV test     .2007 (.0954)** .5345 (.0515)**
No Ref (0)      
Yes 20.4095 (461.10) 0.975    
** Indicates significant value
Table 8: Parameter estimates and standard errors of univariate multilevel model predicting the probability of ever been tested for HIV with random intercept and fixed slope among men, Ethiopia (S.Es are placed in parentheses).