Fixed effects Model 1 Model 2 P-value Model 3 P-value Model 4 P-value
Age group              
15-19   Ref (0)   Ref (0)   Ref (0)  
20-24   2.0911(.1457) 0.000 1.8611 (.1352) 0.000 1.9995 (.1407) 0.000
25-29   2.5285 (.2011) 0.000 2.1879 (.1815) 0.000 2.4004 (.1930) 0.000
30-34   2.1644 (.1999) 0.000 1.9231 (.1854) 0.000 2.0439 (.1905) 0.000
35-39   1.945 (.1843) 0.000 1.7567 (.1741) 0.000 1.8900 (.1810) 0.000
40-44   1.5749 (.1628) 0.000 1.4278 (.1547) 0.001 1.4976 (.1564) 0.000
45-49   1.5983 (.1749) 0.000 1.4418 (.1657) 0.001 1.5249 (.1686) 0.000
50-54   1.4086 (.1671) 0.004 1.2783 (.1593) 0.049 1.3834 (.1660) 0.007
55-59   1.0177 (.1387) 0.897     .9535 (.1364) 0.739 1.0138 (.1398) 0.921
Place of residence              
Rural   Ref (0)   Ref (0)   Ref (0)  
Urban   1.3667 (.1667) 0.010 1.0666 (.1257) 0.584 - -
Education level              
No education              
Primary   2.3060 (.1270) 0.000 1.6590 (.1004) 0.000 1.9224 (.1092) 0.000
Secondary   3.8017 (.3173) 0.000 2.1964 (.1937) 0.000 2.8306 (.2416) 0.000
Higher   4.1499 (.3892) 0.000 2.3794 (.2338) 0.000 3.0359 (.2903) 0.000
Religion              
Christian   Ref (0)   Ref (0)      
Muslim   .9802 (.0663) 0.768 1.0238 (.0741) 0.745 - -
Others   .9044 (.1449) 0.531 1.0875 (.1862) 0.624 - -
Ethnicity              
Tigrean   Ref (0)   Ref (0)   Ref (0)  
Affar   .6049 (.1584) 0.055 .6400 (.1606) 0.075 .6229 (.1637) 0.072
Amara   .8298 (.1280) 0.227 .8639 (.1283) 0.325 .8803 (.1367) 0.412
Guragie   .6268 (.1166) 0.012 .6265 (.1134) 0.010 .6366 (.1183) 0.015
Somalie   .2835 (.0679) 0.000 .3334 (.0756) 0.000 .3264 (.0780) 0.000
Sidama   .4513 (.1252) 0.004 .5438 (.1442) 0.022 .5038 (.1405) 0.014
Oromo   .6279 (.1020) 0.004 .6850 (.1078) 0.016 .6662 (.1085) 0.013
Nuwer   .3297 (.1033) 0.000 .4718 (.1448) 0.014 .3802 (.1204) 0.002
Welaiyta   .7456 (.1769) 0.216 .8388 (.1947) 0.449 .8541 (.2041) 0.510
Others   .5625 (.0918) 0.000 .6849 (.1081) 0.017 .6443 (.1058) 0.007
Wealth Index              
Poorest   Ref (0)   Ref (0)   Ref (0)  
Poorer   1.4007 (.1079) 0.000 1.2531 (.1029) 0.006 1.3360 (.1043) 0.000
Middle   1.6820 (.1325) 0.000 1.4155 (.1184) 0.000 1.5302 (.1222) 0.000
Richer   2.2051 (.1780) 0.000 1.6424 (.1403) 0.000 1.9092 (.1561) 0.000
Richest   3.0615 (.3356) 0.000 2.0368 (.2324) 0.000 2.6567 (.2590) 0.000
Marital status              
Not married   Ref (0)   Ref (0)   Ref (0)  
Divorced   2.1139 (.3096) 0.000 2.0425 (.3193) 0.000 2.0896 (.3109) 0.000
Widowed   2.0300 (.5184) 0.006 2.0326 (.5574) 0.010 1.9853 (.5137) 0.008
Married   1.7208 (.1129) 0.000 1.5849 (.1079) 0.000 1.6739 (.1107) 0.000
HIV related knowledge              
Low       Ref (0)      
High       .8781 (.0945) 0.227 - -
comprehensive       1.0008 (.1070) 0.993 - -
HIV  related  stigma              
No stigma       Ref (0)   Ref (0)  
Low       .8544 (.0450) 0.003 .8118 (.0420) 0.000
Moderate       .6972 (.0426) 0.000 .5630 (.0329) 0.000
High       1.0813 (.2687) 0.753 .5659 (.1184) 0.007
HIV risky behaviour              
No risk       Ref (0)      
Some risk       1.0347 (.0578) 0.542 - -
High       .9742 (.1058) 0.810 - -
Media exposure              
No       Ref (0)      
Yes       1.3488 (.1022) 0.000 1.4892 (.1059) 0.000
Heard Family planning on  Mass Media              
 No       Ref (0)   Ref (0)  
Yes        1.4495 (.0763) 0.000 1.5926 (.0799) 0.000
Knowing Place for HIV test              
No               
Yes        1.72e+08  (6.43e+10) 0.960 - -
Random effects Model 1 Model 2   Model 3   Model  4  
Var (Region)    .4193(.1917)** .1440 (.0733)**   .0742 (.0406)**   .1615 (.0801)**  
Var (Cluster ) .8591( .0718)** .5236 (.0498)**   .4126 (.0435)**   .5191 (.0497)**  
Var (Residual ) 3.27 3.27   3.27   3.27  
Model Fit Statistics Model 1 Model 2   Model 3   Model 4  
Deviance 17488.88 16114.77   14440.73   15816.75  
AIC 17454.89 16180.77   14526.74   15886.76     
BIC 17477.55 16430.07   14851.59   16151.17  
N.B:
Model 1: Represents random intercept model i.e. an empty model
Model 2: A multilevel multiple logistic model that consists socio-demographic and economic variables
Model 3: A multilevel logistic model included both socioeconomic characteristics and HIV related knowledge, stigma, risky social behaviour, media exposure, heard family planning and knowing place where to get test for HIV.
Model 4: The final multilevel logistic model with significant predictors associated with HIV testing
Table 11: Parameters and standard errors of multiple multilevel model predicting the probability of ever been tested for HIV with random intercept and fixed slope among men, Ethiopia (S.E.s are placed in parentheses).