Fixed effects

Model 1

Model  2

P-value

Intercept

.4150 (.0098)**

.1640 (.0222)

0.000

Sex

 

 

 

Female

 

Ref (0)

 

Male 

 

.6762 (.0226)

0.000

Age group

 

 

 

15-19

 

Ref (0)

 

20-24

 

1.9163 (.0957)

0.000

25-29

 

1.9474 (.1082)

0.000

30-34

 

1.6596 (.1058)

0.000

35-39

 

1.4787 (.0970)

0.000

40-44

 

1.1811 (.0861)

0.022

45-49

 

1.0536 (.0822)

0.503

50-54

 

1.0403 (.1127)

0.715

55-59

 

.7918 (.1015)

0.069

Place of residence

 

 

 

Rural

 

 

 

Urban

 

1.2886 (.1234)

0.008

Education level

 

 

 

No education

 

 

 

Primary

 

1.6423 (.0676)

0.000

Secondary

 

2.0853 (.1289)

0.000

Higher

 

2.4134 (.1701)

0.000

Ethnicity

 

 

 

Tigrean

 

 

 

Affar

 

.5723 (.1092)

0.003

Amara

 

.7885 (.0878)

0.033

Guragie

 

.6143 (.0808)

0.000

Somalie

 

.3474 (.0607)

0.000

Sidama

 

.4651 (.1000)

0.000

Oromo

 

.6587 (.0767)

0.000

Nuwer

 

.3519 (.0883)

0.000

Welaiyta

 

.6709 (.1185)

0.024

Others

 

.6229 (.0740)

0.000

Wealth Index

 

 

 

Poorest

 

 

 

Poorer

 

1.2380 (.0734)

0.000

Middle

 

1.4117 (.0861)

0.000

Richer

 

1.6025 (.1002)

0.000

Richest

 

1.8780 (.1567)

0.000

Marital status

 

 

 

Not married

 

Ref (0)

 

Divorced

 

2.2773 (.1957)

0.000

Widowed

 

1.8723 (.2163)

0.000

Married

 

2.0262 (.0925)

0.000

HIV  related stigma

 

 

 

No stigma

 

Ref (0)

 

Low

 

.8972 (.0348)

0.005

Moderate

 

.6791 (.0294)

0.000

High

 

.7574 (.0917)

0.022

Media exposure

 

 

 

No

 

Ref (0)

 

Yes

 

1.1867 (.0542)

0.000

Heard Family planning on  Mass Media

 

 

 

 No

 

 

 

Yes 

 

1.4417 (.0540)

0.000

Knowing Place for HIV test

 

 

 

No 

 

Ref (0)

 

Yes 

 

2302.016 (1629.32)

0.000

Random effects

Model 1

Model 2

 

Region   

.7400
(.3292)**

.1296
(.0646)**

 

Cluster

1.0638
(.0749)**

.3732
(.0328)**

 

Residual 

3.27

3.27

 

Model Fit Statistics

Model 1

Model 3

 

Deviance

35670.31

28144.07

 

AIC

35676.32

28220.08

 

BIC

35701.31

28536.61

 

Table 13: Parameters and standard errors of multiple multilevel model predicting the probability of ever been tested for HIV with random intercept and fixed slope among adults (both men and women together), Ethiopia (S.E.s are placed in parentheses).