Frailty Model                Independent Model
Penetrance     k      Bias%      SE      RMSE      Bias%      SE      RMSE
High  2  -0.57  0.067  0.090  16.42  0.021  0.166
   4  -0.58  0.057  0.079  9.06  0.022  0.094
   8  -0.43  0.050  0.068  4.84  0.023  0.056
 Low  2  -0.09  0.059  0.079  14.60  0.028  0.149
   4  0.10  0.054  0.073  7.85  0.028  0.084
   8  -0.10  0.050  0.066  4.21  0.027  0.054
Bias% = Bias ×100
Table 2: (Shared frailties) Estimating penetrance by age 70 among mutation carriers: Bias, robust standard error (SE) and root mean square error (RMSE) in comparison of frailty and independent modeling approaches.