Sampling Sites (Distance from smelter) Shannon-Wiener Index Simpson's Index of Diversity Species Richness Evenness
Tree Species        
Eroded/Disturbed(0-5 km) 0.52a 0.76a 4.67a 0.36a
Stable upland(5-15 km) 1.13b 0.40b 5.33a 0.70b
Reference(>15 km) 0.97ab 0.54ab 7.67a 0.50ab
Ground Cover        
Eroded/Disturbed(0-5 km) 0.97a 0.42a 4.00a 0.70a
Stable upland(5-15 km) 1.62a 0.29a 9.00b 0.74a
Reference(>15 km) 1.39a 0.32a 6.00ab 0.78a
Means in columns with a common alphabets are not significantly different based on Tukey multiple comparison test (P ≥ 0.05). Eroded/Disturbed sites: Airport,Wahnapitae Hydro-Dam and Kelly Lake; Stable upland sites: Kingsway, Kukagami and Laurentian; Reference sites: Onaping Falls, Capreol and Hagar.
Table 4: Ecological diversity analysis for tree species and ground cover from various sites in the GSR.