Treatment Effect on soil chemistry Effect on physical structure Effect on microorganism Approximate remediation cost (£/tonne)
Removal to landfill UN UN UN Up to 100
Soil washing Y N N 25-150
Physico-chemical Y N N 50-175
Vapour Extraction Y Y Y 75
Solvent Extraction Y N UN 50-600
Chemical n Y N UN 175-450
In situ Flushing Y Y UN 25-80
Surface amendments Y Y Y 10-25
Thermal Desorption Y N N 25-225
Incineration N N N 50-1200
WindrowTurning Y N Y 10-50
Land Farming Y N Y 10-90
Bioventing Y Y Y 15-75
Bioslurry Y N Y 50-85
Biopiles Y N Y 15-35
In Situ Bioremediation Y Y Y 175
Table 1: Effects of remediation methods on soil characteristics and the estimated costs of treatment [13] (adapted from Houghton, 1996 [13]).