Cross-flow microfiltration (i.e. plate-frame, hollow-fiber)

Clarification recovery of 90% can be achieved and the operation is scalable.

Protein recovery is dependent on the protein biochemical properties.

Static dead-end filtration

Clarification recovery of ≥ 90% can be achieved by using a series of depth and absolute filters.

The operation is difficult at a larger scale (i.e. 200 L) and there will be more expensive capital (housings, pipings, filters) and operational costs to be considered.

Batch Clarification using ion-exchange resins

Clarification recovery of ≥ 90% can be achieved.  The operation is the cheapest at the large-scale in comparison to micro or static filtration

Automation of this method may aid in reducing the amount of manual manipulations at the larger scale. 

Table 11: A summary of the different clarification technologies explored and their advantages and challenges when applied to large-scale manufacturing.