Figure 5: a) Time domain measurements of an impedance analysis at a
single frequency. A sinusoidal voltage perturbation (amplitude V_{0}) and the
sinusoidal current response with amplitude I_{0} has a phase angle ϕ. (b)
The impedance value associated to the data from (a) can be described as
the modulus , ϕ and the real Z′ and imaginary Z″ parts, respectively |