Figure 2: Figures 2A and 2B show the linear direct relations between normalized SV and normalized ALVED and normalized SV and PLVEDtm respectively over the range of filling pressures and PEEPs. The normal range was defined as ~85% SV which reflected the 5% SPV from Figure 1. Volume loading increased and PEEP decreased SV, ALVED and PLVEDtm. SV and ALVED were normalized so that the values at PLVED 12 mmHg and PEEP 0 cmH2O were set as 100%. ALVED, normalized left ventricular end-diastolic area (%); PLVEDtm, left ventricular enddiastolic transmural pressure (mmHg).