Figure 3: Figures 3A and 3B show the linear inverse relation between normalized ALVED and SPV and PLVEDtm and SPV respectively over the range of filling pressures and PEEPs. Volume loading decreased SPV and increased both ALVED and PLVEDtm while increased PEEP decreased both ALVED and PLVEDtm and increased SPV at each filling pressure. ALVED was normalized so that the value at PLVED 12 mmHg and PEEP 0 cmH2O was set as 100%.