Figure 8: Changes of myocardial antioxidants after hyperosmotic perfusion with different osmolytes. After 2-hour perfusion with hyperosmotic solutions of different osmolytes at the osmolarity of 350 mOsm/L, different myocardial antioxidant proteins were enhanced. The up-regulated antioxidants include manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), heat shock protein 32 and heat shock protein 90 (HSP32 and HSP90). The later three have properties of promoting vasodilation. n=6. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 versus respective controls.