Perimenopausal women
Inclusion criteria
Age ≥40 years
Female gender
Between 1 and 6 menstrual cycles in the last 12 months
GFR >40 mL/min/1.73 m2
Hematocrit ≥ 35%
Willing to not donate blood during study
2 or more major risk factors1 (study population) or 0 or 1 risk factors (controls)
Exclusion criteria
Inability/unwillingness to provide informed consent
Contraindication to MRI2
Known abnormality of iron metabolism3
Bleeding disorder or bleeding event in the past 6 months
Known atherosclerotic heart or peripheral vascular disease
Use of hormone therapy
Active infection4
NOTES: 1-risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. 2-presence of ferromagnetic foreign body, aneurysm clip, any MRincompatible implant, inability to fit in MRI scanner; 3-examples include hereditary hemochromatosis, iron deficiency, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, hemosiderosis for any reason, atransferrinemia; 4-active infections include conditions like urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and viral illnesses.
Table 1: Inclusion and exclusion criteria.